The Punjab – the region of the five rivers east of Indus: Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej — consists of interfluvial doabs, or tracts of land lying between two confluent rivers. These are the Sind-Sagar doab (between Indus and Jhelum), the Jech doab (Jhelum/Chenab), the Rechna doab (Chenab/Ravi), the Bari doab (Ravi/Beas), and the Bist doab (Beas/Sutlej). it may be mentioned here in 1869, the Scinde Railway, Punjab Railway, Indus Flotilla & Delhi Railway were merged to form Scinde, Punjab & Delhi Railway. Further, in 1886 North Western State Railway was formed with merger of Scinde, Punjab & Delhi Railway, Punjab Northern State Railway, Inuds Valley State Railway & eastern section of Sind-Sagar Railway & southern section of Sind-Pishin Railway and Kandhar State Railway. Major portions of this North Western Railway became Pakistan Railway upon the partition of British India in 1947.
Photo of a railway station in Pakistan Punjab. Many people abandoned their fixed assets and crossed newly formed borders.
During British rule Jhelum was chosen as the site of a cantonment and as the head-quarters of the civil administration. For some years it was the seat of the Commissioner of the Division, but in 1859 his head-quarters were transferred to Rawalpindi. Under British rule Jhelum has steadily advanced in prosperity; and it is the entrepôt for most of the trade of the District, though, since the completion of the Sind-Sāgar branch of the North-Western Railway; the salt trade no longer passes through it. It is an important timber dépôt, the timber from the Kashmir forests which is floated down the river being collected here. A good deal of boat-building is carried on. The cantonment, which is three miles from the civil station, contains the church and post office. The normal strength of the garrison is one Native cavalry and four Native infantry regiments. The municipality was founded 1867. During the ten years ending 1902-03 the receipts averaged Rs. 32,100, and the expenditure Rs, 31,900. Receipts and expenditure from cantonment funds in the same period averaged Rs. 31,900 and Rs. 6,100 respectively. The chief income of the municipality in 1903-04 was Rs.34,200 chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 41,000. Sind-Sagar Railways contributed for the early economic upliftment of this region.